A lawyer may discharge this basic responsibility by providing public interest legal services without fee, or at a substantially reduced fee, in one or more of the following areas: poverty law, civil rights law, public rights law, charitable organization representation, the administration of justice, and by financial support for organizations that provide legal services to persons of limited means. A lawyer should aid the legal profession in pursuing these objectives and should help the bar regulate itself in the public interest. A lawyer should be mindful of deficiencies in the administration of justice and of the fact that the poor, and sometimes persons who are not poor, cannot afford adequate legal assistance, and should therefore devote professional time and civic influence in their behalf.

5. As a public citizen, a lawyer should seek improvement of the law, the administration of justice and the quality of service rendered by the legal profession. 1. A lawyer is a representative of clients, an officer of the legal system and a public citizen having special responsibility for the quality of justice. ^ Alan A. Paterson, “The Legal Profession in Scotland: An Endangered Species or a Problem Case for Market Theory?” in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol.

^ J.S. Gandhi, “Past and Present: A Sociological Portrait of the Indian Legal Profession,” in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. ^ Brian Abel-Smith and Robert Stevens, Lawyers and the Courts: A Sociological Study of the English Legal System, 1750-1965 ( Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 1967), 23. ^ Anne Boigeol, “The French Bar: The Difficulties of Unifying a Divided Profession,” in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol.

^ Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo, “The Venezuelan Legal Profession: Lawyers in an Inegalitarian Society,” in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. ^ Harry W. Arthurs, Richard Weisman, and Frederick H. Zemans, “Canadian Lawyers: A Peculiar Professionalism,” in Lawyers in Society: The Common Law World, vol. ^ Vittorio Olgiati and Valerio Pocar, “The Italian Legal Profession: An Institutional Dilemma,” in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol.

^ Carlos Viladás Jene, “The Legal Profession in Spain: An Understudied but Booming Occupation,” in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. ^ Kahei Rokumoto, “The Present State of Japanese Practicing Attorneys: On the Way to Full Professionalization?” in Lawyers in Society: The Civil Law World, vol. 201 The ban on fees was abolished by Emperor Claudius , who legalized advocacy as a profession and allowed the Roman advocates to become the first lawyers who could practice openly—but he also imposed a fee ceiling of 10,000 sesterces 202 This was apparently not much money; the Satires of Juvenal complained that there was no money in working as an advocate.

199 Therefore, if one narrows the definition to those men who could practice the legal profession openly and legally, then the first lawyers would have to be the orators of ancient Rome 200. 193 Some legal aid in Belgium is also provided by young lawyer apprentices subsidized by local bar associations (known as the pro deo system), as well as consumer protection nonprofit organizations and Public Assistance Agencies subsidized by local governments. The legal profession was abolished in Prussia in 1780 and in France in 1789, though both countries eventually realized that their judicial systems could not function efficiently without lawyers.

151 The largest voluntary professional association of lawyers in the English-speaking world is the American Bar Association. 144 Such institutions have been traditionally dominated by private practitioners who opposed strong state control of the profession on the grounds that it would endanger the ability of lawyers to zealously and competently advocate their clients’ causes in the adversarial system of justice. 138 Even in civil law countries like Norway which have partially self-regulating professions, the Ministry of Justice is the sole issuer of licenses, and makes its own independent re-evaluation of a lawyer’s fitness to practice after a lawyer has been expelled from the Advocates’ Association.

A key difference among countries is whether lawyers should be regulated solely by an independent judiciary and its subordinate institutions (a self-regulating legal profession), 137 or whether lawyers should be subject to supervision by the Ministry of Justice in the executive branch. Some countries, like Italy, regulate lawyers at the regional level, 131 and a few, like Belgium, even regulate them at the local level (that is, they are licensed and regulated by the local equivalent of bar associations but can advocate in courts nationwide). In the English-speaking world, the largest mandatory professional association of lawyers is the State Bar of California , with 230,000 members.

In common law countries with divided legal professions, barristers traditionally belong to the bar council (or an Inn of Court) and solicitors belong to the law society. Besides private practice, they can become a prosecutor , government counsel, corporate in-house counsel, administrative law judge , judge , arbitrator , or law professor 97 There are also many non-legal jobs for which legal training is good preparation, such as politician , corporate executive , government administrator, investment banker , entrepreneur , or journalist 98 In developing countries like India, a large majority of law students never actually practice, but simply use their law degree as a foundation for careers in other fields. Law schools in developing countries share several common problems, such as an over reliance on practicing judges and lawyers who treat teaching as a part-time hobby (and a concomitant scarcity of full-time law professors); 86 87 incompetent faculty with questionable credentials; 88 and textbooks that lag behind the current state of the law by two or three decades.

69 In England and Wales, 70 the Bar Professional Training Course (BPTC) must be taken to have the right to work and be named as a barrister Students who decide to pursue a non-law subject at degree level can instead study the Graduate Diploma in Law (GDL) after their degrees, before beginning the Legal Practise Course (LPC) or BPTC.

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